Political Violence in Canada: A History

csis_-_laporte_s_190782artwLast week, there were two separate incidence of political violence in this country. First in Montreal, and then in Ottawa, with the killing of a reservist at the War Memorial and then a shooting spree in Centre Block of Parliament.

There have been numerous pundits, Op-Eds, and other demonstrations of sense making — some useful and some not so useful. Last week, we read Walkom’s attempt in the Toronto Star to use history as a means to support his argument and his understanding of the events on October 22nd. Here is Jian Ghomeshi, recently fired form the CBC, trying to make sense of the day’s events:

Let’s take a look at history and the history of political violence in this country. Below, share with us a time in Canadian history that resembled or did not resemble this situation. How was it different? How as it the same? How did governments, the media, and the public react? How does your research, thinking, and processing help make sense of last week’s events? Be honest. Do your research. It matters.

To help us along, here are the words of Prime Minster Harper, the leader of the Opposition, and other opposition parties: http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/ottawa-shooting-harper-mulcair-trudeau-speak-about-attack-1.2809530

Lastly, for it’s worth, here is Russell Brand deconstructing the words of our Prime Minister and analyzing the media framing of the events:


32 thoughts on “Political Violence in Canada: A History

  1. The October crisis of 1970 is an example of Political Violence against the government of Canada. In the 1960’s a group called the FLQ was created to try to make Quebec an independent state. They said they would use any means necessary including violence to achieve this goal. From 1963-1970 this group set off 95 bombs in mailboxes, against the Montreal stock exchange and city hall. They stole dynamite from the military and robbed banks to fund this organization. By 1970 23 members of the FLQ were in prison. On October 5 two government officials were kidnapped. The FLQ demanded the release of the 23 FLQ members in prison exchange for the two government officials they had just kidnapped. Prime Minister Trudeau used a very old law called the “War Measures Act” to gain control over Quebec. The War Measures Act is when the government grants the police more power to detain citizens without cause.

    This situation is similar to the attack on the Canadian Parliament last week in two ways. Firstly, both were considered attacks against a specific group of politicians. Secondly, just like last week in October two regiment soldiers were killed when a bomb went off at the Canadian Army Center in Montreal. Two differences between last this and the October Crisis are: Last week was about a “Lone Wolf” going against the government as compared to the entire FLQ organization going against the government. Secondly, last weeks “Lone Wolf” was mentally unstable but the FLQ was more organized.

    During the October Crisis, the government enacted The War Measures Act to help with military control. The media asked Prime Minister Trudeau what his plan was and Trudeau responded with three famous words “Just watch me”. The people of Quebec highly supported The War Measures Act (63%).

    Even though we think Canada is peaceful, quiet and a country that is always saying “Thank You” we have had a history of Political Violence. You would think that Canada would have made an effort to make Canada more secure, safer etc. from the very first example of Political Violence. But it seems to me that the government reacts to a specific situation, fixes the current problem but then the rules kind of relax a little bit and are memories fade. After each Political Violent event Canada made a speech how un necessary it was and how disgusted they felt but we continue to make the speeches over and over again. While most Canadians are very fond of their country and see us as very innocent people there are many people in Canada who don’t see us in such a goodie way. Are we really the True-North strong and free?

  2. Montreal Massacre

    Fourteen young women had been killed in a tragic shooting, outside the Ecole Polytechnique engineering school, on December 6th, 1989. This disastrous event is known as “The Montreal Massacre”, as Marc Lepine stormed through the halls of the University raving that feminists had ruined his life. He injured several other students before he took his own life. This massacre led to higher security improvements and the creation of the federal firearms registry, which was implemented by Prime Minister, Stephen Harper. The president of Quebec’s main women’s federation wanted to ensure that this event would not fade into history and that we could never forget about this devastating event. Today, we are obviously not doing a great job of preventing these behaviours. For instance, we recently had a terrible terrorist attack on our Parliament, and we still today have a lot of hatred towards women and other races or ethnicities. The massacre in Montreal was clearly different than the attack in Ottawa because the massacre in Montreal was caused by sexism as he despised feminists. The terrorist attack in Ottawa was different as it was initiated because of political and religious reasons. They were both similar because they were both violent and malicious attacks caused by hatred.

    Governments and the media approached and reacted this situation very positively as they believe that they must not forget about these women and to prevent similar tragedies in the future. “On Dec. 6, 1989, the lives of 14 innocent and promising young female students were taken in a depraved act of violence at l’Ecole polytechnique de Montreal, simply because they were women,” Harper said. Liberal leader, Justin Trudeau stated, “It is important to remember the 14 women who died in the horrible tragedy”. He continued to state, “We need to underline the passing of 14 extraordinary young women who were killed just because they were women”. These are all quotes backing me up and proving that the Government had a positive approach on this event. However, very recently, there were hate crime actions created by terrorists towards Canada’s parliament. This demonstrates that we failed again to prevent hate crimes in Canada. Through my research, I have observed how crucial it is to keep our nation safe, and to prevent similar events to happen again in the future.

  3. An event in Canada that I feel is parallel to this situation is the Anti-Greek Riots of 1918 in Toronto. From August 1 to August 4, thousands of Anglo-Canadians marched down Younge St, looting and destroying every Greek business they came across. On Friday August 1, around 20 000 civilians, led by the war veterans of WW1 attacked and destroyed Greek businesses, while police and militia did not interfere. On the next night, however, the police fired back. Around 50 000 rioters, civilians and police fought with each other for hours in the city’s downtown. Hundreds were injured, including women and children not involved in the actual conflict, and in todays values damages totalled more than $1 000 000. Greek in particular were targeted because of a variety of reasons. Firstly, Greece was divided on whether to join the Central Powers and Allies. While the royal family supported Germany, the Prime Minister supported the allied forces. This division created problems in Canada as they could not treat them as alienated residents or allow them to join in the military effort in fear of Greece siding with the Central Powers. A lack of participation from the Greek community created a resentment by the returned war veterans who called the Greek immigrants “slackers”.

    This situation is similar to the events that occurred last week because the issue of culture and ethnicity was brought forward. In both cases, the sanctity of Canadian society was brought forward. In response to last weeks events PM Harper declared that “Canada will never be intimidated”. In the riots of 1918, Canadian war veterans vented their frustrations at the lack of help and pensions from their government on the Greek people and demanded that the people they saw as “slackers” be deported in order to protect their country.

    These events in Canadian history differ because of who brought up the issue of ethnicity and the importance of maintaining and protecting the Canadian identity. In this modern event, the idea that this was a culturally-motivated even came as a response to the tragedy that had occurred. This is an important difference as it is an example of how the media and how news is reported has changed.

    The governments reaction to the Riots was one of shock at first. However, on the second day of riots, the government responded by sending militia and police forces to stop the veterans from destroying the businesses of new immigrants. Most of the public supported the riots as they agreed with their veteran family members and had made the same conclusions from their sufferings about who was to blame for the economic, health and social changes that faced Toronto over the course of the First World War. Finally, the Riots came about at a time where media was reaching global audiences. Newspapers in Canada, Washington, London and Athens were talking of the summer riots.

    In response to the events of last week, the Canadian government and the people making up the government responded in a non-surprising political way. The Prime Minister gave a speech the evening of the incident proclaiming that Canada cannot be intimidated and that Canadian values have been attacked. Behind this patriotic and threatening message, an obvious agenda is visible. Canadian MP’s have brought discussion of the event into the House of Commons, with elections coming up next year the leaders of the opposing parties are looking at this event in order to find a way to win themselves votes and to lose part of the public’s trust in the government. The media has responded by making this an issue about race. Without even the identity of the shooter or the victim, the media connected the shooter to Islam and then to ISIL. This allowed media to justify security actions in place. On CNN a panelist justified the actions of the NSA and the intrusive security measurements using this event. This kind of response from the media formed the opinions of the public. And as a result, the public has reacted badly towards Muslim communities and defaced mosques as well as asking for the deportation of Canadian Muslims. Although this has not been the response of many Canadians, the fear and anger instilled into Canadians by the media in the name of entertainment value is frightening in itself.

    My research, thinking and processing of these two events have helped me outline the major change in media and news in the 21st Century. This change of passing information onto the public is important because of the medias influence on the way people think and the opinions that they form on subjects. Any fear, anger or other emotions conveyed to the public by the media will change the way Canadians or other people think. This is why it is important to be a global citizen and critical thinker and analyze or question any information you come by.

  4. Last week the killing of a reservist at the War Memorial and the shooting spree in Centre Block of Parliament attracted Canada´s attention. Canadians all over the world hold their breath. Immediately after the event media informed the public about what happened and they already started to imagine the causes and consequences of this day in Canada´s history. It seems like our society nowadays like to have drama. Through social medias and other networks, stories started to get around which might not be true.
    When people talk about the events of October 22nd 2014 they often use the word political violence. To further talk about other political violence in Canada´s past I want to clarify this word. It is defined as an aggressive act motivated by a desire to affect changes in the government.
    Also in the past of Canada´s history there have been moments of political violence. We can think about the Red River Rebellion led by Louis Riel in Manitoba between 1869-70. But the reasons of this political violence and the means by which Louis Riel and the Métis tried to achieve their goals were totally different from these of the events of October 22nd 2014.
    During the negotiations between Canada and the Hudson´s Bay Company over the transfer of the land nobody bothered about the Natives and Métis people. Canadian surveyors already started to plan the division of the land into agricultural sections. The Métis were alarmed and saw their traditional lifestyle in danger. Louis Riel, a highly educated man, came at this time back to the place where this land transfer took place, his birthplace. He formed a provisional government and began to draft a list of rights, which laid out the Métis conditions for joining Canada.
    It is hard to compare the Red River Rebellion with the events last week in Ottawa and Montreal, but it helps us to make sense of what happened last week. It is not unusual that people are discontent with the politics of their country and that they therefore start to rebel and revolt. But over the years the sort of political violence dramatically changed. This results from the world further development and change of people´s thinking. Nowadays people have modern weapons to start an aggressive attack on the government. But it is harder to reach the goal of political violence because security is much safer and the government is prepared to such acts. At the time of Louis Riel political violence was common because the political system changed often. But the state didn´t needed to be ready for them because everybody acted more peaceful. Because of all these differences historians now call the Red River Rebellion more often a resistance since Riel acted very peaceful and pledged allegiance to the Queen.
    The separation activities in Quebec resemble more what happened last week. The sovereignty movement is a movement that advocates the sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec. In the 1960s several groups coalesced to the “Parti Québécois”. There were some groups that tried to achieve the independency for Quebec through peaceful means like referendums. Others however used violent means and murdered at the hands of FLQ (terrorist organization). But since the bombing and robbery campaign from 1963 and 1970 and the death of government minister Pierre Laporte all sovereignty groups have sworn off violence. The sovereignty groups used the same violent means than the offenders in Ottawa and Montreal. There aim was as well to change the government. But we don´t know exactly the reasons for the bombing and killing on October 22nd. Media often connects last week´s events with terrorism but we need to wait till police and politicians come to a real statement.
    In total my opinion is that our society shouldn´t freak out too much about the events in Ottawa and Montreal. Media makes them more dramatic then they are. Additionally, we don´t know completely the reason of the political violence last week. However we should care about them but don´t create false stories.

  5. In the 1960s, the FLQ reached it’s height by launching a bombing campaign which included targets such as The National Defence Headquarters, The Canadian Army Recruiting Centre of Montreal, the Liberal Party social club, the Montreal Stock exchange, and numerous Canadian shops. The group strongly supported the secession of Quebec from Canada and Quebec sovereignty.

    The situation of the 1960s strongly resembles the events of the past week. Although the FLQ was more organized and widely known as a terrorist group, both events caused mass hysteria in society and led the government to take drastic measures. The terrorists acts of 1960 galvanized public support for the War Measures Act to be brought in, while in today’s society, public support for increased interference in the Middle East is rising and increased power may possibly given to the Canadian Intelligence Agency. Both events also caused false, illogical assumptions to be made. Many people believed the FLQ terrorist acts to be connected to the Soviet Union. Today, the media made the illogical leap to conclude that the shooting at Parliament Hill is connected to the overseas terrorist group ISIS.

    I believe that before we can draw conclusions based on recent events in Ottawa, we need to know more information. We can’t simply say that the group is definitely linked to Islamic Radical Group ISIS just because a shooter’s background is Islamic. There are other factors that must be taken into account such as mental illness, morals, beliefs, and/or historical precedent. The people who did this could have been incapable of making rational decisions, they might have been displeased by the government based on events that happened in the past, or perhaps they perceive their religion or beliefs in such a way that they justify their acts. In my opinion, Canada should not panic and jump to conclusions before having the necessary information. The media tends to distort things and cannot be trusted. Canada is no stranger to political violence, and especially in today’s society where individual morals, beliefs and values conflict with those of general society’s, these types of events should not be considered as rare. People are often displeased with the political system in their country and this can lead to violence. I myself cannot make a conclusion as to whether the event is indeed connected to ISIS, or the individuals who engaged in these violent acts had other motives to do what they did, but what I do believe is that the Canadian government cannot justify taking measures that restrict the rights of Canadians or increase Canadian interference in international conflict without proving that there is a real potential harm imposed on Canadian society.

  6. I believe that conflicts like this will always happen as long the human race exists. Any nation can be prone to violence, whether it be Canada or Syria this will always happen. But let’s just focus on Canada for the moment. The first recorded deaths ever recorded in Canada were over 800 years ago in British Columbia. The motive for these deaths were the result of the rivalry between two different Haida clans over land. If you think about it, these deaths were caused by political violence. Native Canadians have always fought each other, as far as the history starts whether it be over land or power, the great ancestors of Canada caused political violence as well. Let’s move on to the modern era. The infamous war of 1812 was politically motivated. The Americans wanted to occupy Canada as property of the United States. War’s based on politics will not just end. I don’t believe Canada should sacrifice so much to fight a war on terrorism that truly is never going to end. If ISIS is destroyed, it is likely that another organization will just pop up somewhere else in the world. There will always be certain people who disagree with what Canada does, there are also the people willing to kill others because they hold hatred towards our government such as Michael Zehaf-Bibeau who fatally shot Corporal Nathan Cirillo last week. While there are few people around the world who do this, they are still out there and there will always be people who want to cause harm for their cause, no matter the consequence.

  7. In 1970, and event of political violence with similar characteristics to this recent one occurred. In 1963, the terrorist group FLQ arose. Largely known at the time, their goal was to promote the making of an independent Quebecois state. They swore to use any required methods, including various types of violence to achieve this goal. In what is known as the ‘October Crisis’, the FLQ kidnapped James Cross, a British commissioner in Montreal.

    This kidnapping caused an immediate and intense reaction from the federal government, as did this more recent act of violence. The impression was given to the public that the FLQ were a very large, and powerful terrorist group. Because of this, the government based their decisions off what the public wanted and invoked the violent War Measures Act. The FLQ was forbidden, and average rights were banned. This act affected many innocent people, but the majority of the public viewed it as a good thing because they believed they were being kept ‘safe.’ Many Canadians supported the government’s decision in murdering two of the kidnappers. The government even went as far as to supply the local police with assistance from the Canadian Armed forces.

    After lots of investigation, the public soon learned that the FLQ had no more than only thirty-five members.

    After both events, the majority of Canada became united, enraged about what had occurred. But, in both situations, the government has pushed people to come to conclusions that may not necessarily be true. Many people believed that the FLQ was a much more massive terrorist group with relationships in the Soviet Union. As Disha said, the government has also given us the impression that the Islamic Radical Group may be behind what has just occurred, only because the shooter’s background was Islamic. In both of these situations, there is little to no evidence to backup these assumptions.

    Both of these acts of violence were tragic, but the media distorts these situations before real evidence was and has been found. This in itself can very easily lead to more destruction. I myself am not sure if these assumptions are true, but the government and the media needs more information before attempting to justify ‘solutions’ like the War Measures Act, rather than just jumping to conclusions.

  8. Question: Below, share with us a time in Canadian history that resembled or did not resemble this situation. How was it different? How as it the same? How did governments, the media, and the public react? How does your research, thinking, and processing help make sense of last week’s events?

    A time in Canadian history that resembled the recent shootings in Canada is the Montreal Massacre. Another shooting that took place at the The École Polytechnique on December. 6, 1989. Also known as the “Montreal Massacre”, a 25 year old man named Marc Lépine stormed through the École Polytechnique with a gun and shot 28 people before he killed himself. Lépine claimed he was fighting feminism and targeted all the women at the school. He then sweeped the school specifically targeting women to find and kill. Overall, he killed fourteen women, injured ten other women and four men at the school. This event has been classified as an anti-feminism attack. Officials suggest that this attack was an act of a ill-minded man. Just like the killer at the war memorial, Micheal Zehaf-Bibeau, these two shootings are acts of political violence to Canada. Both men were both ill-minded. During the Montreal Massacre, they took safety persuasions to be more secure on the school campus as well as firearm laws. Similar to what they did in Ottawa, there were changes made to better protect Parliament hill and change and secure their system of protection in parliament Hill, in order to prevent another act like this in the future.

  9. 2006, Toronto Ontario, June 2nd. Dozens of police teams raid homes in Toronto and Mississauga and arrest 15 individuals. The next day they are accused of “violent ideology inspired by al-Qaeda.”. On June the 6th, a suspect’s lawyer says that his client “ is accused of planning to storm Parliament, behead the prime minister and attack a number of sites, including CBC headquarters in Toronto”(Gary Batasar). But yet no concrete evidence can be found about this until May 4th, 2009. This is summary of what happened to the Toronto 18 a terrorist group who supposedly all supported al-Qaeda. This was different in the sense that all of it was speculation and no one had actually initiated an attack on Canada unlike the man who just went up and shot a guy. But its similar in the sense that both of the people did not agree with Canadian Parliament and targets members associated with it. The government assumed that groups from the middle east were behind the people who tried to oppose the government in a sense and the media then blew that out of proportion and made every attempt to insert that opinion/speculation into their broadcast. The general public concerning the shooting on Parliament Hill were not as worried as vocally worried but concerning the Toronto 18, the public were “praising” the police for capturing the 18 suspects according to CBC.

  10. The events that occurred this passed week were extremely similar to the October Crisis of 1970. The group of FLQ, had intentions of making quebec an independent state.

    From 1963-1970 FLQ set off approximately 95 bombs in mailboxes, against the Montreal stock exchange and city hall. The FLQ also stole dynamite from the military and robbed banks to fund their organization. By 1970, 23 members of the FLQ were arrested. On October 5 two government officials were kidnapped, which sparked the crisis. Once the officials were captured, ransom notes had been received. They identified the abductors as the Liberation cell of the Front de Libération du Québec [FLQ]. The next day death treats were sent, received by radio station CKAC with death threats to Cross if the demands were not met.
    As in relation to the attacker at the war memorial, Micheal Zehaf-Bibeau, these two events are acts of political violence to Canada. Both with ill intentions, safety must be taken into question at this time. Both events had a goal of violence and the goal was achieved. Innocent people were harmed in an attempt to prove a point
    Precautionary measures were taken in 1970 and will now be taken again in 2014, to prevent events like these to occur once more.

  11. Before I get into discussing an example of political violence in Canada, I believe we first must understand what political violence is. Political violence is basically violence that is acted out of the country’s control, with political ideals motivating the violence. This type of violence unfortunately occurred just over a week ago on Parliament Hill in our country’s capital, and it ended with a Canadian soldier’s death. Political violence in Canada is not as unknown to our country as we may believe, as we have been recently exploring in class. A specific example that I would like to explore today would be the case of the Squamish Five. The Squamish Five, or Direct Action as they would like to be called, was a group of people active in the 1980s in Canada. This was a different case than the happenings in Ottawa in almost every way. This group of people did not directly target government officials or government buildings, but they targeted the government indirectly in every way. They believed that they could motivate others to action through their own actions. A good example of this would be Amax. Amax was a mining company that the government issued a special exception to the environmental laws and regulations of Canada. This was the Squamish Five’s first act, in which they vandalized Amex’s headquarters. The Squamish Five’s following missions increased significantly in violence. They continued to be active in Canada for the next two years, with acts such as the Cheeyke-Dunsmuir Bombing. The group went to Vancouver Island to bomb the Dunsmuir BC Hydro substation that resulted in 5 million dollars in damages. The hydroelectric program was, at the time, being criticized as one of the most disrupting to the environment. Another one of their “successes”, was the Red Hot Video firebombing in which they literally firebombed three of the franchises of Red Hot Video. Red Hot Video was a franchise of pornography stores which were reportedly extremely sexist towards women, and were also accused of selling Snuff Films, which are basically films of an actual murder. These actions caused such an increase of attention to these stores that the government felt pressure, causing them to change laws regarding the selling of violent pornography of the sort in Canada, as well as charges and fines being laid against Red Hot Video stories in Victoria, BC. As you can see, the two versions of political violence are very different, but just as legitimate. The happenings in Ottawa were the actions of one person, with currently unknown motives, that ended in the killing of one man. The happenings throughout about three years over Canada due to a group of five extreme activists, known as the Squamish Five, with obvious motives that don’t seem really all that bad, but that were carried out with actions that were very wrong and misguided. This is just one example of a case, or rather many cases made by the same group of people, carried out in Canada.

  12. I think a situation which is very similar to this one is that of the assassination of Thomas D’Arcy Etienne Hughes McGee. He was an Irish-Canadian politician who is to date the only federal level politician assassinated on Canadian soil. The reason this is similar to the recent troubles, is that the assassin, was a Fenian, who killed McGee for Fenian reasons. So here we have a foreign issue, which has hardly any to do with Canada, affecting matters on our soil. In the modern world, we get things like ISIS and see people trying to mobilize towards that cause. Thats what ties these two instances together.

  13. A scenario that reminds me of the shootings at Parliament Hill and The War Memorial is the FLQ terrorist attacks in the 1960’s. The FLQ, Front de libération de Quebec, was a terrorist group in favour of the Quebec Sovereignty Act. The FLQ seeking sovereign independence for Quebec conducted a number of acts of terror like bank robberies, violent attacks, bombings, kidnappings, and murders. The FLQ began these sorts of attacks in 1963 and escalated from their until 1970 when the October Crisis took place. The October Crisis that took place in 1970 is the event that co-inherits the same type of event that took place in Ottawa and Montreal.

    The October Crisis took place in Montreal on October 5th, 1970. The beginning of the attack took place at British Trade Commissioner’s, James Richard Cross’s Montreal residence where four FLQ members posted as fake deliveryman and kidnapped him. In order for him to be released the FLQ requested that the government release 23 prisoners that the FLQ believed were political prisoners and also requested that their manifesto be read on national television. Despite the works of the government the crisis continued on and five days later the Quebec minister of labour and the government’s senior cabinet minister, Pierre Laporte was kidnapped. From here the crisis escalated as the military was called in to protect politicians and important buildings. On October 16th the War Measures Act was invoked and for the first time the act was used during peacetime, suspending basic civil rights and liberties thus allowing police searches, non warranted arrests and prolonged detentions without charges and without the right to see a lawyer. On October 17th Pierre Laporte was found strangled to death in the trunk of a parked car.

    The October Crisis and the Montreal and Ottawa events shared similarities and differences. The similarities shared between the two events were that they were both terrorist attacks, both involved an attack on the government and based on the Montreal events they were on the same grounds.

    Both the events also differentiated. The main differences between these events were, the October Crisis targeted political figures while the Ottawa attack was randomly targeted, unfortunately killing a Canadian soldier. The October Crisis was committed by a group of people while the Ottawa attack was committed by a single person. The context of the attacks were also different as the Ottawa attack seemed sporadic and surprising while the October Crisis was planned and executed by a terrorist organization.

    The reactions within the media and news were relatively similar between the two events. Both the attacks were surprising and the media and news were very appalled by the sudden drastic events. Both the events were very serious and life threatening and never had i seen the news reporters so concerned with an event until i watched the news reports during the October Crisis and found a similarity between the two events.

    Researching the October Crisis made me realize that even after a tragic event like that the government had a lot of work to do in keeping their politicians safe and the general population. Now after the Ottawa shooting and the Montreal incident it is still clear that the government is not done it building their walls of security and maybe never will be.

  14. The shootings that took place at Parliament Hill in Ottawa reminded me of the October Crisis in 1970 that took place in Quebec. In the 1960s, the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) was a separatist and paramilitary group based in Quebec, Canada that targeted English owned businesses, McGill University, banks, and the homes of prominent English speakers. One of their most significant attacks was the kidnapping and murdering of two government officials, one of them being the Quebec Minister of Labour, Pierre Laporte. I believe that the FLQ resembles the events that took place at Parliament Hill on October 22, 2014 very well. In Ottawa, Michael Zehaf-Bibeau fatally shot Corporal Nathan Cirillo, a Canadian soldier on ceremonial guard duty at the Canadian National War Memorial. Coincidentally, both crises occurred in October and involved fatal killings of significant and innocent Canadians. However, they also differ in the sense that the suspects had killed for different reasons, the FLQ’s motive was that they wanted an independent Marxist-Leninist Quebec state while Michael Zehaf-Bibeau, according to the RCMP, was driven by “ideological and political motives”. The Harper government reacted and framed the incident as if it was an act of terrorism. The media, especially social media networks such as Twitter included deep and strong sympathies for Nathan Cirillo and his family. Immediately after the breaking news was released, Canada was in high alert and Canadians were in shock because there had not been such a threat to Canada since the October Crisis in 1970, when the FLQ kidnapped and murdered Pierre Laporte.

  15. I think shootings that took place at Parliament hill in Ottawa reminded me of the crisis of October 22 1970. The FLQ had a set goal to make Quebec into an independent state. First of all FLQ had at least a 100 bombs in mailboxes and had kidnapped 5 government officials.
    The FLQ had 35 members and had 23 of those members in custody. Well, first of all, the FLQ was well organized and had a set goal of putting Quebec into an independent city. While the shooting at parliament hill was apparently only a lone wolf attack. I would not make assumptions yet because we do not no this was a lone wolf attack or if it was an attack to show that terrorist still had the power. I think the main difference between these two political violence would be the fact that we know why FLQ was doing political violence, but we do not know if Micheal Zehaf-Bibeau did this as an organized attack to show they had power, or just did a lone wolf attack.
    So to organize what I have said the two political violence made were different because of the fact that they do not know the intentions for parliament hill shootings, while they do for the FLQ. This really matters because we do not know the intentions of that man which could make other people terrorize again and again for that cause.

  16. I also think like many others that the shootings that took place at Parliament Hill in Ottawa related in a way to the October 1970 crisis. The FLQ did many terrible things like hiding 95 bombs in mailboxes, stealing dynamite from the military and robbing banks. In addition they kidnapped two government officials on October 5. This was all done in order to make Quebec an independent state.
    The reason this has similarities to the Ottawa shooting is because they were both acts against groups of politicians. Although the shooting that happened recently was not organized by a terrorist group it was done by a man who isn’t mentally stable; Canada still needs to find a way to prevent these things. I think that what we are doing wrong is by dealing with each situation separately instead of looking at what is happening and saying this needs to be stopped and putting an end to political violence and other types of violent actions right away.

  17. I believe that this this horrifying event (the shooting on Parliament Hill) was the first stepping stone in a series of different rebellious acts, if things don’t change. The history of Canada is actually pretty violent weather it was the hanging of Louis Riel or treatment of aboriginal children in residential schools, though these were examples of violent acts done by the Government. This is not the only occasion that there has been an attack on the leaders of our country. In the May of 1966, a man by the name of Paul Joseph Cartier attempted to blast the House of Commons. Though he failed, this event displayed his unhappiness by the way that our country was being run. He felt as if Canada’s politicians were all greedy bad people and the increase in prices was the reason why people couldn’t afford housing and other important necessities. Mr.Cartier was blaming his financial and relationship troubles on Canada’s government. He felt that he should get rid of as many of the politicians as he can in one go. We should keep in mind that in 1963, Canada’s first political sex scandal had gone public. This scandal was known as the Munsinger Scandal. Gerda Munsinger, a German prostitute and a Soviet spy, had slept around with many of cabinet ministers of John Diefenbaker. This is similar to what is happening in today’s politics. As I talked about in the “Are we too dumb for democracy” assignment, there many scandals involving many of the members on Senate, such as Mike Duffy, Mac Harb, Pamela Wallin and Patrick Brazeau. I believe that the media has to do with some of these tragic events because of the attention they give these politicians. I think that the coming Federal election will do us some good by bringing change to how our government is being run. Maybe then people would not feel the urge to harm politicians, at least for the next decade.

  18. Actual terrorism has occurred in the past in Canada: the FLQ Crisis is a prime example. During 1960s, the Quebec separatist group, Front de liberation de Quebec, started to terrorize Quebec, setting off 95 bombs at places like the Montreal Stock Exchange, Montreal City Hall, railway tracks and more. These bombings harmed many people. In October 1970, the FLQ abducted two Government officials, James Cross, a British diplomat and Pierre LaPorte, Quebec cabinet minister, as hostages, hoping that they could get 27 other FLQ members out of jail. However, Pierre Elliot Trudeau, the Prime Minister at the time implemented the War Measures Act to help fight the FLQ. What the War Measures Act did was that it gave the federal Government power to arrest and detain without immediate trial. With the War Measures Act, the Government was able to stop the FLQ, although Pierre LaPorte was still strangled to death and found in the trunk of a car later. The FLQ crisis can be considered a terrorist attack, for it did strike fear into the lives of all Canadians and caused many problems for Canada as a whole. As a result, the crisis can be used as a standard when comparing other attacks like the one on Parliament Hill earlier this week.

    Compared to the FLQ crisis, the Parliament Hill shooting was similar and different in many ways. According to CBC, the shooter, Michael Zehaf-Bibeau, went to Parliament Hill, shot the Memorial guard/soldier and preceded to open fire inside Parliament Hill. Government officials braced themselves for the assault, with the Conservative caucus “fashion[ing] spears and whisk[ing] [Harper] into [a] closet” (Globe and Mail). However, the shooter was soon stopped and killed by police. The Parliament Hill shooting is similar to the FLQ case because both cases had the Government vulnerable and called for drastic measures, like shooting the shooter, or implementing the War Measures Act. However, what was different about this attack was that it was far less severe than the FLQ crisis. With the FLQ crisis, the FLQ and the Government had had a long conflict which was harming Canada’s unity and security, which had a much greater impact on Canadian society as a whole. The Parliament Hill shooting, on the other hand, was just a random shooting, such that it caught the whole nation off guard, according to the CBC. But, when looking at the situation where terrorism has occurred, and where it has seemingly occurred, there are many problems with the judgement placed on the Parliament Hill shooting in general.

    When the shooting first occurred, many media outlets initially spurted out some connections between the shooter and the conflict with ISIS. In fact, our Prime Minister even said that the shooter was an “ISIS inspired terrorist” when he was giving his speech about the shooting. It was only until later that this claim was entirely false when the mother of the shooter clearly stated that the shooter was not connected to ISIS at all; he was angry at the Government for not giving him a visa to go to Saudi Arabia to study Islam and the Qu’ran. It can be seen that judging the event immediately after it happens is not always the best, and creates confusion. Not only is that a problem, but the way how the whole nation reacted to the shooting can be seen as an over exaggeration. When the shooting occurred, many people were scared, primarily because of the confusion developed through the media, but also the emphasis on the situation. When the news came out about the shooting, it was immediately deemed as a terrorist attack, for it did cause a bit of terror within Canada. But at the same time, it did not cause the same amount of terror as did the FLQ crisis, or other crimes. As a result, when the whole nation reacted to this with fear, it sent out the message that this was a full on terrorist attack, while in reality, it was just an attack of lesser magnitude. There are crimes in Canada that are so much more severe, yet they are less publicized. One example is the Moncton shooting earlier this year. Justin Bourque shot 5 and killed 3 RCMP officers on June 4, 2014 according to the Globe and Mail. He was soon captured and recently given a 75 year sentence without parole. However, none of the charges given were of terrorism, just first degree murder, according to the Globe and Mail. Cases like the Bourque’s begs the question to why events like the one on Parliament Hill are made far more serious while other more serious crimes just resolved unheard.

  19. The tragedy which occurred in our country’s capital just a few weeks ago is extremely heart breaking and a very unfortunate event. However, when this tragedy did occur last week, the media took this incident to a whole other level and escalated the event to a point where they began to scare canadians. The media these days simply loves drama and they love to make situations even more intense than they are. Don’t get me wrong the shooting of an innocent soldier was a horrific crime but the media displayed this case as if we have never had a shooting in Canada before. As soon as the shooting happened the media immediately began making false accusations with absolutely no evidence saying that out of nowhere “Canada has been getting involved with the effort to combat the islamic state group”. WAIT HOLD ON, at that point the only known facts were that two shootings occurred within the span of 3 days, why was the islamic state group mentioned out of nowhere? Russell Brand makes a very good argument. Essentially the media is making leaps in logic because there is no real evidence at the time to back up their argument. Also at such a scary time for canadians being glued to their televisions or radios wanting to know whats happening, in their state of mind we sometimes “get the wool pulled over our eyes” and take things at face value. But if we dig deeper you come to realize that shootings are not a foreign concept in Canada, although it does not happen as often compared to other parts of the world, it still does happen in Canada.

    Anyhow to get back on topic there are many previous examples of shootings in Canada. Canadian citizens should not become freaked out by the recent shooting. One example of a shooting which I am going to focus on is the Ecole Polytechnique Massacre, also known as the Montreal Massacre which happened on December 6th 1989. In this shooting a 25 year old man by the name of Marc Lepine killed 28 people that day before killing himself. He claimed he was fighting feminism and specifically targeted women during his shooting. “His suicide note claimed political motives” (Wikipedia). Some commentators believe that the violence in media is to be blamed.

    The similarities in these two shootings were that first of all they were both shootings. Also to quote Hannah Gibb’s definition of political violence, “political violence is basically violence that is acted out of the country’s control, with political ideals motivating the violence” which is exactly what the recent shooting was revolved around and the Montreal Massacre. After both events Canada became closer and united as the mourning of the lost ones took place. In both cases the media reacted frantically. The public in both cases acted the same as everyone mourned and was freaked by the incidents. However in the Montreal Massacre there was evidence to make assumptions but in the Ottawa shooting some of the assumptions made by the media had no evidence to back up their accusations.

    The media needs to get a better understanding of the situations they are reporting before making leaps in logic which can cause so much more damage. For example because the media mentioned a connection with the shooter being Islamic, a day after the Ottawa shooting a Mosque was vandalized with phrases like “go home” written all over. It was eventually fixed but because the media made so many assumptions their actions effected others so negatively. It is important when doing critical thinking or reporting on national television to examine your evidence properly and not make any any claims without evidence.

  20. This type of event reminds me of the time Québec tried to separate from the rest of Canada in mid 90s. When René Lévesque, the leader of the party Québécois almost led the province of Québec into complete independence, there was real terrorism. From the shootings at Concordia university, by an angry professor, to the fleeing of citizens out of the country, true terrorism occurred during that time period. Though, we see this Canadian Muslim extremist doing causing havoc and mass chaos at the honourable parliament building, we have to take to account what true
    terrorism is. Murders happen everyday, this is irrefutably horrific, and we must try to stop it at all costs, but it is not terrorism. True terrorism happens when it seems that there has been true fear by the nation it has been done in. Take 9/11 for example: the godforsaken day was when not only the people in New York were in a time of misery, but the entire nation was. Originally, the plan was to not only bomb the world trade centre, but the pentagon as well. More so, this would have caused major dismay throughout the entire country, rather than just one end. Here in Canada, we see that what happened in Ottawa hasn’t been seen as a large phenomena throughout the entire country, rather than just being aggrandized in Ottawa. We must categorize our murders into more than just, homicide and terrorism. I believe there is at least a third category or maybe even more in between the two we have so far. The name of the category, horrorism i.e. minor terrorism. If we add this new category, it will cause less unstable thoughts towards the people in fear, and cause a little more peace because it gives them a larger sense of hope than what they already have. An example of horrorism besides this could be the mysterious capture of aboriginal women in Manitoba; it is a minor terrorism because it causes fear, yet still maintains in a small area. I see that the government seems to just be throwing around a very strong word, “terrorism” around in uncanny circumstances, and this cannot happen any longer. There was a death of a reservist in Ottawa. If the government wants to call this terrorism, they need evidence, and the amount they have so far, doesn’t cut it. We as a society, are immediately being seduced that all crime is seen as terrorism, this just causes unnecessary fear and anxiety. I am not saying that there will never be terrorism in this nation, but what I am saying is that we need to sort them out better and not jump to conclusions for the reasons I have stated in this paragraph.

  21. Firstly, we should know what political violence is. Political violence is when groups or individuals think that their political systems will never achieve the political demands and because of this, they believe that violence is the only way to achieve their political goals. Although this does not happen in Canada often, an event occurred in Montreal and Ottawa with the killing of a soldier at the War Memorial and the shootings in Centre Block of Parliament. It was Political Violence.

    A event that reminds me of the Ottawa shootings is the FLQ terrorist attacks in the 1960’s. The FLQ stands for Front de libération du Québec (Quebec Liberation Front). The FLQ strongly supported the Quebec sovereignty movement. The FLQ was known as a terrorist organization because of their violent actions. The FLQ committed many murders and bombings. The goal of the FLQ was to overthrow the Quebec Government and allow Quebec to be independent from Canada.

    The FLQ terrorist attacks in the 1960’s remind me of the events that occurred in Montreal and Ottawa because all these events caused terror to Canadians. People were also surprised that events like this occurred in Canada. The events were terrorist attacks and both had an attack on the government.

  22. The Montreal Massacre, which is also referred to as the École Polytechnique Massacre, of December 6th, 1989 is one instance in Canadian history that both resembles and contrasts the relatively recent events that have occurred in Montreal and in Ottawa. The massacre was provoked by twenty-five-year-old Marc Lépine, who shot twenty-eight people at the university using his legally-obtained Mini-14 before killing himself. Lépine began his massacre at one of the classrooms of the university by separating the male and female students before shooting all nine of the women in the room, whom he had called “a bunch of feminists”, consequently killing six. He continued to search the university for women to shoot, with the intention of “fighting feminism”. In the span of twenty minutes, fourteen women were murdered, ten women and four men were injured, and the gunman was killed.

    In both the Montreal Massacre of 1989 and the Ottawa Shooting of 2014, the government and the media have classified the events as representative of the views shared by a wider portion of Canadian society rather than treating the events as isolated crimes committed by those hiding behind radical political views. The École Polytechnique Massacre galvanised the Canadian women’s movement as it was, and is, viewed as a symbol of violence against women in society. The government reacted by creating a House of Commons Sub-Committee on the Status of Women and by releasing a report entitled “The War Against Women” in the year 1991. Following the recommendations of the report, the federal government established the Canadian Panel on Violence Against Women, which proposed a “National Action Plan” consisting of an “Equality Action Plan” and a “Zero Tolerance Policy”; the plan was designed to increase the equality of women in society and to reduce violence against women by means of government policy.

    Likewise, the recent instances of political violence in Quebec have been branded as “attacks on our country, on our values, on our society, on us Canadians as a free and democratic people who embrace human dignity for all”, to use the words of our Prime Minister, Stephen Harper. The recent shooting is presently being classified as a terrorist attack, similar to the ones characteristic of terrorist organisations elsewhere. Stephen Harper states that, in response to the political violence, “[we will] redouble our efforts and those of our national security agencies to take all necessary steps to identify and counter threats and keep Canada safe here at home, just as [we will] strengthen our resolve and redouble our efforts to work with our allies around the world and fight against the terrorist organisations who brutalise those in other countries with the hope of bringing their savagery to our shores”. This indicates that, instead of simply focusing on preventing political violence in Canada, the government is taking additional steps by planning to intervene in foreign countries where seemingly similar terrorist attacks are occurring.

    With respect to both events, the government and the media have been criticised for labelling the attacks as representative of broader societal views. Critics of the predominant reaction to the Montreal Massacre argue that Lépine was a “lone gunman” who does not represent men, and that violence against women is neither condoned nor encouraged officially or unofficially in western culture. Furthermore, psychologists who have analysed the evidence have speculated as to whether Lépine had any of various disorders, including personality disorder and attachment disorder, and whether these disorders incited his acts of violence. Similarly, according to the mother of Michael Zehaf-Bibeau, the gunman responsible for the shootings at Ottawa, Zehaf-Bibeau was “mad and felt trapped so the only way out was death”; by saying this, Bibeau attributed the political violence to mental illness rather than merely radical political ideology. Furthermore, Bibeau wrote that Zehaf-Bibeau was an unhappy person who was “at odds with the world” and who had turned to religion and Islam as a way to make sense of this.

    Therefore, it appears that, in both circumstances, the individuals responsible for the acts of violence had adopted radical political ideologies in an attempt to cope with mental illness or personal frustrations and anger. In the case of the Ottawa shootings, Zehaf-Bibeau’s actions appear to have been motivated, in part, by government intervention in foreign countries. Indeed, his mother writes that “I know he believed the US government responsible for killing thousands of innocent Iraqi civilians, that he did say that”. Based on this information, it seems unwise that the Canadian government respond to these attacks by further intervening in foreign countries. Perhaps, our government should focus attention on preventing further violence in Canada before taking action that could potentially increase political violence both in our own country and worldwide.

  23. The attacks in the Parliament buildng remind me of a horrible, tragic event: The Montreal Massacre. On December 6th, 1989.
    The Montreal massacre was iniatiated out of pure hatred and antifeminitism. Marc Lepine’s (killer) had blamed women, that they had ruined his life. For revenge, Lepine commenced a shooting at the University of École Polytechnique, seperating the men and women. In total he shot 28 women, killing 14. 20 minutes into the attack Lepine commited suicide, but clearly noted in a suicide note that he was “fighting femitism”. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89cole_Polytechnique_massacre). This hurt our nation very much, especially considering that my mother (not directly affected by this) had not forgotten the memory of hearing the news.

    Not knowing the full details of the situation on Parliment Hill, I believe this situation was very similar. It was so because both of the attacks had a profound effect on our nation, and other countries. They were similar in the sense that both of the murderers were alone, and fighting bythemselves. Both of the disgraceful men, had intentions to prove, they succeded in getting attention. But not in influencing us. Instead we have united our nation, coast to coast (everyone following Corporal Corillo’s coffin along the highway when he was being transportated.). Not only were they similar in that sense, but that that media had the same reaction. That we must combat these actions, move on and never repeat. “We need to underline the passing of 14 extraordinary young women who were killed just because they were women” said Justin Trudeau. This and many other quotes, have given evidence that we as a nation must need to accept these problems, but learn from our history. Not only that, but Steven Harper said “We are also reminded that attacks on our security personnel and on our institutions of governance are by their very nature, attacks on our country, on our values. on our society, on us Canadians as a free and democratic people who embrace human dignity for all.” By stating these quotes, they indicate they took we have taken it quite well and learned from our history and that we will not be influenced by lunitics for what WE are.

    Society, will always learn from mistakes and take it as positively as possible such as Montreal (What others have said ex. Trudeau) and Parliament (following the Corporals coffin on the highway). We must remember although, that this Parliament Attack has not been confirmed as ISIS and that our nation should act as normally as it has been in the last few years. This was probably a mere incident with an ill-mented man, as proven that it was the same with the Montreal Massacre.

  24. First off, it is important to know what Political violence is. Political violence occurs when people don’t believe that the political system will actually achieve there own political demands and the only way to achieve there demands is by violence. an example of this occurred very recently in Ottawa when a soldier was killed at a war memorial. An example of political violence form the past were the terrorist attacks that took place in the 1960’s by the FLQ (Front de Liberation du Quebec or Quebec Liberation Front in english). FLQ wanted Quebec to be separate from the rest of Canada and was known as a terrorist organization because its violent actions including but not limited to murder and bombing. The FLQ’s only purpose was to take over the government and make it independent form Canada. These attacks are similar to the events that occurred in Ottawa because both events bought uneasiness to people all over Canada and were to send a message to government.

  25. The shooting that happened in Ottawa was very tragic and resulted in the death of a soldier on duty guarding the War Memorial. This incident left Canadians shocked and unnerved. The reason this event was taken so seriously is because acts of violence are unusual in a place like Parliament Hill. Horrific things happen every day countrywide, so why was this incident so outrageous? In response to these events the Prime Minister addressed the nation. In his speech Harper stated that this event was “a grim reminder that Canada is not immune to the types of terrorist attacks we have seen elsewhere around the world.” He is making assumptions by calling this a “terrorist attack.” There is not enough evidence to prove that it was a terrorist attack, so we must not jump to conclusions. The media can be misleading, and by making assumptions instead of simply stating the facts, it is causing Canadians to panic for no reason.
    The events that took place this past month are similar to another act of political violence that happened in October of 1970. In the 1960’s the FLQ (Front de liberation du Quebec) committed various acts of violence with the goal of gaining greater independence for Quebec. They were responsible for a number of bombings with targets including the Montreal Stock Exchange, Montreal City Hall, and RCMP offices. The FLQ was thought of as a terrorist group that was very large and powerful. The October Crisis of 1970 was triggered by two kidnappings of government officials by the FLQ. This incident is similar to the shootings in Ottawa because they were both acts of political violence and in both cases innocent people were killed. We cannot say whether they were both terrorist attacks, though, because we do not yet know the motives of the shooter in Ottawa.

  26. A time in Canadian history that resembles the situation that occurred in Ottawa last week is the FLQ Crisis. In October 1970 two government officials were kidnapped by members of the FLQ, one of which who was later found dead, in an act to draw attention to Quebec’s seeking of independence. The FLQ crisis was a planned attack by an organization with a cause, while the Ottawa shooting was apparently one attacker who may not have been mentally stable and was a habitual offender and a drug addict. In Montreal the FLQ declared its belief in violence as a means of reconstituting society, while according to video evidence provided to the RCMP the shooter in Ottawa had motives that involved Canada’s foreign policy and his own religious beliefs. Both situations involved attacks towards government officials, and both involved the death of victims who were high ranking members of society. In the case of the FLQ crisis Pierre Laporte, the Minister of Immigration and Labour was found in the trunk of a car. The victim in the Ottawa shooting was Corporal Nathan Cirillo who was a Canadian Soldier on guard duty at the Canadian National War Memorial. After British Trade Commissioner James Cross had been kidnapped the Canadian government declared the War Measures Act and both the army and the RCMP were given a great deal of authority in terms of search, arrest and detention. The public supported the actions of the government. The media claimed that the government had motives that were based upon perceptions of political advantage.

  27. Tough times never last, but tough people do. As a country we’ve suffered many twists and turns on the road to discovery. The October crisis of 1970 was no exception. Like any other crisis, there is always the root cause. In this case, this series of events was caused by the kidnapping of two government officials, James Cross and Pierre Laporte. The kidnappers were disguised as delivery men dropping off a package, but the officials was unaware that the moment they opened the door, was the last moment they was to be seen alive. There were many signs of the kidnappers, but the police did not connect two and two at the time.

    The FLQ resembles the incident that occurred in Parliament Hill on October 22, 2014. Nathan Cirillo, a Canadian solider and guard for the Canadian war memorial was brutally shot by another Canadian who police believed to be influenced by ISIS (Islamic State). In both cases, lives of innocent Canadians were taken around the same time period. Why? This is where the motives differ. The victims were confirmed to be sit for different reasons. In the October crisis of 1970, the FLQ’s motive consisted of the fact that they wanted an independent Quebec state while the shooting on Parliament Hill was considered by police to be an influence or a political motive.

    Life is about fighting for what you believe in and to bring justice to those who sadly never had it. Those innocent victims deserved way better and that is why we stand here today telling their story in hopes of one day influencing people to think before they act and make Canada and safe environment for its citizens.

  28. The recent events that occurred in Parliament last week have left Canadians speechless. The killing of the guard at the Canadian War memorial and the shooting spree that took place in Centre Block of Parliament has shocked Canadians. This cowardly act is viewed as an act of political violence. What exactly is political violence? Political violence is an act directed towards the government to reflect one’s beliefs and or opinions. It’s hard to make sense of last weeks events because violence is unpredictable and the motives for these events are still unclear.

    Canada is no stranger to political violence. There have been many past events that occurred that could be compared to the most recent government attack on October 22nd. An event that is similar to the most recent event happened in 1868, to a man named D’Arcy McGhee. McGhee was a spokesman, journalist, poet and a historian. He is known as a “Father of Canadian Confederation”. D’Arcy McGhee took part in a parliamentary debate that ended up going past midnight one night. While going back to his boarding house, McGhee was assassinated by Patrick J. Whelan. Whelan did not like McGhee’s beliefs so he decided to make his point through violence: beliefs and ideals however, should be expressed through discussion and not violence.

    Both the assassination of McGhee and the past shooting spree were acts of cowardice. The killing of the guard was inhumane. I view Canada has a non-violent country and hearing of the shooting spree has left me feeling uneasy. Both of these acts of violence were terrible. I am shocked that people today are still trying to make their point by killing innocent people. Both of these killings were unprovoked and malicious. The killers want to make Canadians feel afraid and nervous but as Steven Harper tweeted “let there be no misunderstanding, we will not be intimated. Canada will never be intimidated”. These killings will not change the way Canadians think.

    The government reacted by not changing anything. They need to show these killers that we are a strong country and that we will all get through this together. The public of course was outraged and saddened by these events but Canada has a whole won’t let violence affect us. The media also plays a big role in these events. The media is saying that the killing in Ottawa was related to a terrorist group but we simply do not have enough information to conclude that so therefor, we should infer anything. There is always more to the story than what the media relates to us.

    Canada has a history where this has happened before and we have persevered. We won’t let this change us as a politically free country. We will remain a free country and continue to have our democratic ways and we will speak our mind without letting violence distract us.

  29. The events that unfolded in Ottawa shocked the nation of Canada, but this act is not the first of it’s kind to happen in our country. The article titled “Political Violence” by Kenneth Mcnaught, on the Canadian Encyclopaedia contains extensive content that shows the history of political violence in Canada that dates back before confederation. What I have leaded from this document is that violence directed to the government is a recurring event and it also had occurred all over Canada, including here in Winnipeg. In 1969, Louis Riel liberated Upper Fort Gary along with his Metis accomplices, and a year later executed Tomas Scott. This act of violence, in some ways, is very similar to the recent attack in Ottawa. What is different is that the recent attacks in Ottawa was likely an act of terrorism. A common definition of terrorism is: violent acts that are intended to create fear (terror), that are perpetrated for a religious, political, or ideological goal. The Rebellion in Red River was not intended to create fear, but to be recognized by the government.

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  31. The recent devastating events that took place in Ottawa remind of an event that took place last year when two men were caught trying to set of pressure cooker bombs at the British Columbia Parliament buildings as inspired by al-Qaidia. Both of these events share similarities as they were both on parliament soil. In addition, both events were done as a result of a group of people who were influenced by a organization like ISS and al-Qaidia. In conclusion, Canada must put a stop to this by improving the countries security.

  32. The horrific things that happened in Ottawa recently are not the first, nor the last of political violence in Canada.

    It reminds me of when the FLQ (Front de Libération du Québec) did things like setting off bombs in mailboxes, robbing banks, and making threats from 1963-1970. They even captured government officials and made ransom notes. Eventually, 23 members were arrested in 1970.

    The events at Parliament Hill were done by one man, while the FLQ were a group working together. However, both did horrible things in order to achieve a goal and force terror into the people of Canada’s hearts. Canada cannot predict when these disastrous things will happen, but we can make sure when they do happen, we are ready for it. We should be taking more safety and security measures to make sure if these things happen, no innocent people will be harmed.

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